Sex Differences in Graphic Warning Label Ratings by Addictions Clients
Objectives: Research on sex differences in response to cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) has been limited despite tobacco-related health disparities for women. We examined whether women had stronger responses to certain labels than to others, whether this pattern differed from men's, and whether there were overall sex ratings differences. Methods: Smokers (N = 881) in 24 addictions treatment programs rated 3 of 9 Food and Drug Administration-developed labels on credibility, message reactance, quit motivation, and negative emotions. Participants rated one label depicting a woman and/or baby, and 2 depicting tobacco-related disease or male images. Results: Women's (N = 432) ratings of labels depicting women/babies versus other labels did not differ from men's (N = 449) ratings. Women had higher ratings than men across all labels combined on credibility (p < .001), quit motivation (p = .007), and negative emotions (p < .001). Individual labels were analyzed for sex differences. Women's ratings were higher on credibility for 3 of 9 labels, and on negative emotions for 7 of 9 labels. Conclusions: Female smokers in addictions treatment had generally stronger responses to GWLs than men, supporting GWL implementation in the United States to help close the sex gap in smoking cessation .
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2019
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- Tobacco Regulatory Science (Electronic ISSN 2333-9748) is a rigorously peer-reviewed online scientific journal for the dissemination of research relevant to the regulation of tobacco products. The journal content includes a broad array of research domains, including chemistry, biology, behavior, community, and population-level surveillance and epidemiology, as well as knowledge syntheses (eg, meta-analyses or state-of-the-art reviews) and analytic modeling. All articles describe the policy relevance of the research outcomes. Given the global nature of tobacco regulation, particularly as a result of international and national policies, Tobacco Regulatory Science publishes high quality research that is relevant to global regulatory needs and requirements. Tobacco Regulatory Science is published electronically 6 times per year.
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