Adults' Visual Attention to Little Cigar and Cigarillo Package Warning Labels and Effect on Recall and Risk Perceptions
Objectives: We used eye-tracking to examine how little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) pack features influence adults' (aged 18-34) visual attention to warning labels. Methods: Adults who were ever users of LCCs (N = 181) viewed a series of LCC pack images in a mixed design that varied the background color of a text-based warning label (yellow vs white) and the inclusion of a price promotion (present vs absent) as between-subject factors. Eye-tracking technology measured the number of fixations, dwell time, and entry time on the warning label. Recall of the warning and risk perceptions were also assessed. Results: Participants who saw LCC packs with price promotions looked at warning labels less often (B = –1.10, 95% CI –1.89, –0.32) and for shorter periods of time (B = –245.41, 95% CI –474.87, –15.96). The yellow background of the warning was associated with greater recall of the warning statement and with lower perceptions of the risk of heart disease and stroke. Conclusions: Our study provides some evidence that price promotions distract from warnings about LCCs' health effects and that the background color of the warning statement might make a difference in recall and response to the warning.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2018
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- Tobacco Regulatory Science (Electronic ISSN 2333-9748) is a rigorously peer-reviewed online scientific journal for the dissemination of research relevant to the regulation of tobacco products. The journal content includes a broad array of research domains, including chemistry, biology, behavior, community, and population-level surveillance and epidemiology, as well as knowledge syntheses (eg, meta-analyses or state-of-the-art reviews) and analytic modeling. All articles describe the policy relevance of the research outcomes. Given the global nature of tobacco regulation, particularly as a result of international and national policies, Tobacco Regulatory Science publishes high quality research that is relevant to global regulatory needs and requirements. Tobacco Regulatory Science is published electronically 6 times per year.
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