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Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma Presenting With Refractory Hypertension in a Premature Neonate: A Case Study

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The most common nonencapsulated solid renal tumor in the neonatal period is congenital mesoblastic nephroma. Mesoblastic nephroma is a solid lesion originating within or extending from the renal parenchyma. These tumors proliferate rapidly, typically within 3–6 months after birth. Mesoblastic nephromas are stratified by classification as either classical (benign) or atypical (malignant); masses composed of both benign and malignant cells are also reported. The hallmark clinical manifestation of mesoblastic nephroma is a palpable abdominal mass, which may be accompanied by hypertension, hypercalcemia, hematuria, and polyuria. Differentiating between benign and malignant renal tumors is essential to invoke a timely, evidence-based management and treatment plan. With appropriate surgical intervention in a timely manner, prognosis is excellent and mesoblastic nephroma is considered curable. We present a case involving a premature infant with congenital mesoblastic nephroma with discussion of embryology, pathophysiology, diagnostic, management, and prognostic implications for the neonate and family.
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Keywords: CONGENITAL MESOBLASTIC NEPHROMA; HYPERTENSION; NEONATE; RENAL MASS

Document Type: Case Report

Publication date: January 1, 2017

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