VATER ASSOCIATION WAS FIRST described in 1973 as a nonrandom group of related defects, as follows: V = vertebral defects, A = anal atresia, TE = tracheoesophageal fistula, R = radial limb dysplasia.1 Since that time, various expansions of the acronym have been suggested in an effort to further define the scope of the VATER association. Temtamy and Miller expanded the V in VATER to include vascular anomalies, specifically, ventricular septal defect and single umbilical artery.2 An expansion of the acronym to VACTERL has been suggested, with the C denoting cardiovascular anomalies and the L denoting limb anomalies.3 The designation of VATER or VACTERL association can be made for infants with at least three of the defects designated in the acronym.4
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2003
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