Exstrophy of the Bladder
Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital defect that occurs when the abdominal wall and underlying structures, including the ventral wall of the bladder, fail to fuse in utero. As a result, the lower urinary tract is exposed, and the everted bladder appears through the abdominal opening. Various surgical interventions have been employed with variable success in the hope of achieving complete dryness, full control over delivery of urine, freedom from catheters and external appliances, and a protected upper urinary tract. The most popular surgical approach is the primary bladder closure with secondary bladder neck reconstruction. Comprehensive nursing, medical, and surgical care are necessary to preserve renal and sexual function. The many complex problems experienced by these infants and their families call for a multidisciplinary approach. This article reviews occurrence, clinical presentation, and management of exstrophy of the bladder.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: March 1, 1999
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