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Spontaneous Hepatic Hemorrhage: A Single Institution’s 16-Year Experience

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Spontaneous hemorrhage from hepatic tumors is an uncommon but serious complication. Recently, interventional radiologic (IR) techniques are being used increasingly in the management of these patients. We report our 16-year experience in managing spontaneous hemorrhage from liver tumors. Twenty-six consecutive patients were diagnosed with spontaneous liver hemorrhage between 1995 and 2011. Initial management was operative in eight, IR in six, and supportive in 12 patients. Of those managed operatively, five were segmentectomies; one hemihepatectomy; one wedge resection; and one packing who later died from coagulopathy. In the IR patients, seven had an angiographic embolization; two required reembolization; one underwent resection of a hepatic adenoma 21 days after angiographic embolization. The malignant lesions included hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 6), angiosarcoma (n = 1), metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), metastatic leiomyosarcoma (n = 1), nonsquamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), or metastatic angiosarcoma (n = 1). Benign diseases included hepatic adenoma (n = 5), end-stage liver disease (n = 1), and polycystic liver (n = 1). Spontaneous hemorrhage from the liver occurs evenly from benign or malignant causes, one-third of which are primary liver disease. If the patients presents emergently, angiographic embolization may control the bleeding and allow for elective resection once the sequelae of bleeding have resolved.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Publication date: November 1, 2016

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