Admission Red Cell Distribution Width: A Novel Predictor of Massive Transfusion after Injury
Admission red cell distribution width (aRDW) has been shown to predict mortality in trauma patients by an unclear mechanism. It has been speculated that aRDW is a marker of chronic health status, but elevated RDW may also reflect recent hemorrhage. We hypothesized that aRDW is a predictor of major hemorrhage in trauma patients. Shock trauma patients at a Level I trauma center over 6.5 years were evaluated. Patients were stratified by aRDW quintile (Q1: less than 13%, Q2: 13.1 to 13.5%, Q3: 13.6 to 14.0%, Q4: 14.1 to 14.9%, Q5: 15.0% or greater). Massive transfusion (MT) was defined as 10 or more packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours. From multiple logistic regression, odds ratios with 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) were determined to evaluate the association between aRDW quintile and MT. Three thousand nine hundred ninety-four met study criteria. Overall MT incidence was 10 per cent and in-hospital mortality was 17 per cent. MT and mortality increased in a stepwise fashion by aRDW quintile (P < 0.0001). From logistic regression, a threefold increased odds of MT was associated with aRDW Q4 (CI, 1.81 to 4.92), and a 3.5-fold increased odds of MT was associated with aRDW Q5 (CI, 2.70 to 5.83). aRDW independently predicted MT, suggesting that elevated aRDW is an indicator of major hemorrhage in trauma patients. The association between aRDW and mortality in trauma patients may be explained by acute hemorrhage rather than chronic health status.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Division of Trauma and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, The University of Tennessee Health, Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Publication date: July 1, 2014
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