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Screening Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Men for Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

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Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is rare, but more common in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe our findings in 50 biopsies done on 37 HIV-positive men over 5 years. The men were referred from our HIV clinic for abnormal cytology on anal pap or anal condyloma. Thirty-seven patients were referred from the HIV clinic for abnormal cytology on anal pap or the presence of anal condyloma. Biopsies were done in the operating room using acetic acid to visually localize areas of dysplasia. If no abnormalities were seen, biopsies were taken from each quadrant of the anus. A retrospective review was done for biopsy indication, pathology, recurrence, and correlation with anal pap results. On initial biopsy, anal condyloma conferred the presence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in 64.7 per cent (11 of 17), abnormal paps in 83.3 per cent (10 of 12), and both in 50 per cent (3 of 6). Patients with anal condyloma had AIN in an average of 2.5 quadrants whereas those with abnormal cytology had AIN in 2.3 quadrants. Thirty-four of 50 biopsies showed abnormalities (68%), with AIN present in 32 cases, one case of carcinoma in situ, and one case of invasive carcinoma. Aldara was used nine times with improvement in four cases. In HIV-positive men, the presence of condyloma warrants surgical biopsy. Performing anal cytology on patients with anal condyloma did not increase the rate of positive results. Patients with AIN often had disease in more than two quadrants, making surgical excision problematic.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

Publication date: August 1, 2012

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  • The Southeastern Surgical Congress owns and publishes The American Surgeon monthly. It is the official journal of the Congress and the Southern California Chapter of the American College of Surgeons, which all members receive each month. The journal brings up to date clinical advances in surgical knowledge in a popular reference format. In addition to publishing papers presented at the annual meetings of the associated organizations, the journal publishes selected unsolicited manuscripts. If you have a manuscript you'd like to see published in The American Surgeon select "Information for Authors" from the Related Information options below. A Copyright Release Form must accompany all manuscripts submitted.
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