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Laparoscopic Approach to Adrenalectomy: Review of Perioperative Outcomes in a Single Center

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Laparoscopic expertise increases the volume of adrenalectomies at referral centers. We report our 10-year experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy. All laparoscopic adrenalectomies at a single institution were prospectively recorded in a surgical outcomes database. Patient demographics, operative/perioperative outcomes, and adrenal pathology were reviewed retrospectively. From March 1999 through July 2009, 154 laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed in 150 patients. Average patient age was 49.9 years (range 15‐82); mean body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2 (range 17‐56). Pathologic diagnoses included hyperaldosteronism (n = 69), nonfunctional adenoma (n = 28), pheochromocytoma (n = 23), hypercortisolism (n = 14), malignancy (primary n = 3, metastasis n = 9), and cyst (n = 4). Seventy-three per cent (n = 110) occurred on the left, 23 per cent (n = 35) on the right, 2.6 per cent (n = 4) bilateral, and 0.6 per cent (n = 1) as extra-adrenal. The average tumor measured 3.6 cm (range 0.4‐12). The average operative time was 156 minutes (range 62‐409), the mean estimated blood loss was 60 mL (range 10‐400), and mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.6 (range 1‐4). Three operations (0.2%) were converted to open. Three patients (0.2%) experienced perioperative complications (respiratory failure, urinary tract infection, line sepsis, and readmission within 30 days). The average length of stay was 3.4 days (range 1‐44) and mean follow-up was 96.9 days (5‐2567). No wound-related complications or deaths occurred. Pathologic diagnosis was not associated with a particular side or development of a complication (P > 0.5). Patients with pheochromocytomas had the longest operative times, highest estimated blood loss, and highest American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (218.2 minutes, 128 mL, 3.0; P < 0.004). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and effective. Removal of pheochromocytomas is more challenging and may be more appropriate for referral to a specialized center for optimal outcomes.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2011

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