Fresh and Lean Pork Consumption in Relation to Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, NHANES 2005-2016
Objective: In this study, we assessed the influence of pork consumption on nutrient intakes and diet quality among US adults. Methods: We used a nationally-representative sample (N=27,117) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2016 waves for analysis. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant non-observables (eg, eating habits, taste preferences) by using within-individual variations in pork consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Results: Approximately 19.4%, 16.5%, and 16.1% of US adults consumed pork, fresh pork, and fresh lean pork, respectively. Prevalence of pork, fresh pork, and fresh lean pork consumption differed by sex, race/ethnicity, and education level. Increased fresh and lean pork rather than total pork intake was related to marginally improved nutritional intakes (ie, protein, magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus, and vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6) with lesser increases in daily total energy, saturated fat, and sodium intakes. Pork, fresh pork, and fresh lean pork consumption was not found to be associated with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score. Conclusion: US adult pork consumers may increase their share of fresh and fresh lean pork over total pork consumption in an effort to increase their daily intakes of beneficial nutrients while minimizing intakes of energy, saturated fat, and sodium.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2019
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