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Adolescent Depression: National Trends, Risk Factors, and Healthcare Disparities

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Objectives: This study examines national trends in the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of depression among adolescents and investigate disparities in their mental health service use in the US. Methods: Data for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (N = 95,856) who participated in the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2011 to 2016 were pooled and analyzed. Time trends and predictors of adolescents' depression and treatment were examined using Pearson's χ2 test and multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of adolescents' 12-month depression increased steadily from 8.3% to 12.9% over the years, but their use of mental health services remained largely stable. Higher rates of depression were observed in females, older adolescents, and those from single-mother households. Having less authoritative parents and negative school experiences significantly predicted adolescent depression. Lower rates of treatment and medication use were found among racial/ethnic minorities and adolescents without any insurance. Whereas having less authoritative parents decreased adolescents' likelihood of using healthcare services, negative school experiences significantly increased their chances of using treatments and medication. Conclusions: A growing number of adolescents with untreated depression were noted over time. Enhanced psychoeducation, continued policy efforts, and expanded service capacity are warranted.
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Keywords: ADOLESCENT MAJOR DEPRESSION; EPIDEMIOLOGY; HEALTH DISPARITIES; MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES; NATIONAL SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Childhood Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ;, Email: [email protected]

Publication date: 01 January 2019

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  • The American Journal of Health Behavior seeks to improve the quality of life through multidisciplinary health efforts in fostering a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of both individuals and social systems as they relate to health behaviors.

    The Journal aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of personal attributes, personality characteristics, behavior patterns, social structure, and processes on health maintenance, health restoration, and health improvement; to disseminate knowledge of holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to designing and implementing effective health programs; and to showcase health behavior analysis skills that have been proven to affect health improvement and recovery.

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