Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Adolescent Nonmedical Use of Opioids and Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks

Buy Article:

$39.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


In this study, we examined the relationship between alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) and nonmedical prescription opioid use among 12th graders, using data from the 2015 Monitoring the Future Study.


Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in nonmedical prescription opioid use by students who used alcohol-only (AO) versus AmED and to identify covariates of nonmedical prescription opioid use.


Greater frequency of AmED use was associated with greater frequency of nonmedical Oxycontin (r = 0.391, p < .001) and Vicodin (r = 0.379, p < .001) use with moderate effect sizes. Results revealed statistically significant differences in frequency of nonmedical Oxycontin (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 0.29) and Vicodin (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 0.30) use between AO and AmED use. Likelihood of nonmedical prescription opioid use increased by a factor of 2 for each time AmED was consumed in the past 12 months.


Our results highlight the need to improve understanding of the relationship between nonmedical prescription opioid, energy drink and AmED use. AmED use appears to be associated with increased nonmedical prescription opioid use.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: addiction; alcohol; drug abuse; energy drinks; nonmedical opioid use

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Texas State University, Department of Health and Human Performance, San Marcos, TX.

Publication date: 01 September 2018

More about this publication?
  • The American Journal of Health Behavior seeks to improve the quality of life through multidisciplinary health efforts in fostering a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of both individuals and social systems as they relate to health behaviors.

    The Journal aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of personal attributes, personality characteristics, behavior patterns, social structure, and processes on health maintenance, health restoration, and health improvement; to disseminate knowledge of holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to designing and implementing effective health programs; and to showcase health behavior analysis skills that have been proven to affect health improvement and recovery.

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Review Board
  • Reprints and Permissions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more