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Evolved general relativity predicts “sought-after departure” of Space Time Asymmetry Research mission

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Influenced by Einstein’s two dictums on incorporation of maximum of empirical facts with least of hypothesis, and on long-continued experimental verifications for perfecting his theory of relativity, the authors reviewed with special emphasis the “ad-hoc” or alternative methods or approaches that mathematical astronomers (working on celestial mechanics) and physicists continued to adopt in their respective fields while presenting their relativity-related experimental data or results, which makeup the “century-long experience of relativity-related experiments on physics, astronomy, and celestial mechanics” (CEREPAC). Faced with the limitations of the concept of “constancy of c” in different branches of physics, Professor Byer [Ke-Xun Sun et al, Astro 2010 White Paper for Technology Development, Stanford University], the developer of miniaturized space-qualified laser is leading the space time asymmetry research (STAR) mission, which aims to greatly advance the field of fundamental physics, and has two important Baseline Objectives among those stated in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Science Plan (2007‐2016): to test the validity of Einstein's General-Relativity-Theory (GRT) and to detect the “sought-after departure” Δc. A study of the annals of GRT, and Prof. Will's [Living Rev. Relativ. 17, 4 (2014)] observation from the annals of GRT reveal that GRT grew in isolation from celestial-mechanics and mathematical-astronomy, and also to some extent from mainstream physics during 1920‐1960. Subsequently, the mathematical-astronomers in Jet Propulsion Laboratory, applied the numerical simulation methods utilizing the high precision space-age ranging data to “n-body problem in Gravitation,” and developed an evolved or a more successful version, namely, GRT-astronomers model, while the older GRT-conventional model cannot perform numerical simulation of lunar and planetary orbits. To eliminate the principal downside of GRT-astronomers model, the authors incorporated relativistic-time for integration instead of nonrelativistic time, and avoided incorporating any hypothesis related to constancy of c, and the outcome was GRT-astronomers (modified) model. Subsequently, utilizing available clues from CEREPAC, further efforts by the authors led to the formulation of the remodeled relativity theory (RRT) by retaining and incorporating only experimentally proven principles. RRT determines the variable local or coordinate speed cr , which really is the local limiting speed in nature. RRT also enables the elimination of all sorts of ad-hoc or alternative methods that got revealed from a review of CEREPAC, and helps to eliminate the problems and anomalies, associated with the century-long applications of GRT in astronomy, Celestial mechanics, and physics. Additionally, RRT has eliminated the black-hole-paradoxes of GRT and has shown that the higher redshifts of the compact celestial bodies (viz., in NGC 7603) provide observational evidences for RRT. As observational evidences provided first-level proofs for RRT, a low-cost “Direct” space experiment has been proposed in 2009 for verifying the RRT-predicted value of cr . Thus, evidently RRT has become an evolved version of GRT, and it made possible the first-time computation of the lower limit for cr at 299 792 457.79 m/s, which is the minimum magnitude of c in nature, c 0, as measurable at infinite distance from all gravitating bodies. Also, RRT has generated the equation for Δc of STAR mission and produced its values (that cannot be done using the first two models) along a vast tract of space for verification during the STAR and similar missions.
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Keywords: Coordinate Speed of Light; Evolved General Relativity; General Relativity; Relativity Theory; Remodeled Relativity Theory; STAR Mission; Sought-After Departure Δc; Space Experiment; Speed of Light

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2016

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  • Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal's mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.
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