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A theoretical demonstration that the cosmological constant must be null and the universe expansion speed is constant

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In a previous paper, it was demonstrated that, if the expansion speed of the universe has not to exceed the limit of light speed c, respecting at the same time the Hubble law and the density isotropy of the universe, the mass of the universe must increase linearly with the universe radius. Using a Newtonian approach, it was demonstrated that a consequence of this proportionality was the absence of gravity in the expansion process, therefore, a cosmological constant could not be necessary. Another consequence of the linear increase of the mass with the radius was that the pressure p in the energy conservation equation was p = - ρ c 2 / 3 , where ρ is the density. Introducing this value of the pressure in the Friedmann equations, the same results as in the Newtonian approach were obtained (i.e., a null gravitation during expansion and the same density variation with time). In the present study, it is mathematically demonstrated that a cosmological constant cannot be but zero. It is also demonstrated that the universe mass must vary with time even if the expansion speed of the universe were not constant. It is evidenced that the expansion speed of the universe cannot however vary with time and that the mass increase is a necessary condition for the compatibility of relativity with the Hubble law and the energy conservation principle.
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Keywords: Cosmological Constant; Cosmological Parameters; Early Universe; Gravitation; Hubble Constant; Relativity

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 18 June 2015

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  • Physics Essays has been established as an international journal dedicated to theoretical and experimental aspects of fundamental problems in Physics and, generally, to the advancement of basic knowledge of Physics. The Journal's mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity.
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