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Open Access Prophylactic therapy with subcutaneous C1-inhibitor is associated with sustained symptom control in patients with hereditary angioedema

Background:

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by disabling episodes of edema that commonly affect the skin as well as the gastrointestinal tract and upper airway. Prophylactic therapy can decrease the severity and number of attacks. Long-term symptom control and rescue medication use were evaluated in patients with HAE who received subcutaneous (SC) C1-INH enrolled in an open-label extension (OLE) of the phase III COMPACT (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy) trial, including a subgroup analysis of patients treated for ≥12 months.

Methods:

The OLE study evaluated patients ≥ 6 years old who had had four or more attacks over 2 consecutive months before enrollment. Patients naive for C1-INH (SC) and patients in the COMPACT rollover trial were included. The patients were randomized to receive C1-INH (SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 52 weeks. U.S. patients were eligible to continue for up to 140 weeks.

Results:

A total of 63 patients were randomized to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dose of 60 IU/kg; 24 subjects were treated for at least 12 months. For the 63 subjects, the median (range) attacks per month were 0.09 (0.0‐4.0) and per year were 1.0 (0.0‐48.0). Two-thirds of the patients used rescue medication fewer than once per year. For the 24 patients with ≥ 12 months of exposure, the median (range) attacks per month and per year were 0.017 (0.000-2.4) and 0.199 (0.000-28.94), respectively. Of these patients, 12 (50%) were attack free throughout the duration of the study, and 3 (12.5%) had fewer than one attack per year.

Conclusion:

Prophylaxis with C1-INH (SC) provided sustained reductions in attack frequency and decreased rescue medication use, with a substantial proportion of patients being attack free.

Keywords: C1-INH; C1-inhibitor deficiency; HAE; Hereditary angioedema; SC C1-INH; Subcutaneous C1-INH; edema; long-term prophylaxis; plasma-derived C1-INH; rare genetic disorder

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: From the Department of Medicine, Pediatrics and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania; 2: Associate Director Biostatistics, CSL Behring Innovation, Marburg, Germany; and 3: Global Clinical Scientist Lead, Clinical Research TA Immunology, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

Publication date: May 1, 2022

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