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Eosinophilic esophagitis in children: Updates and practical aspects of management for allergists in a non‐tertiary care private practice setup

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Background:

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune and/or antigen-mediated disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of mucosa (≥15 eosinophils per high power field) without any secondary etiology. Non‐immunoglobulin E mediated mechanisms predominate in EoE.

Objective:

This review concentrated on a stepwise approach for the allergist working in non‐tertiary care private practice.

Methods:

A medical literature search that focused on several areas of the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of EoE was conducted.

Results:

There has been a steady increase in the prevalence and incidence of EoE. Clinical symptoms can vary from dysphagia to failure to thrive, depending on the age at presentation; some children develop adaptive behaviors to compensate for dysphagia, such as food preferences and slow eating. The diagnosis is based on a high index of clinical suspicion and is confirmed with endoscopy with biopsies after ruling out other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Treatment options may include dietary therapy, pharmacologic therapies, or combination therapy. Therapeutic options may also include endoscopic dilation for stricturing disease.

Conclusion:

Providers should be aware of recent recommendation changes in the diagnostic workup, the role of skin-prick testing, and role of the proton-pump inhibitor as first-line therapy for EoE. Also, clinicians should be aware of the emerging role of empiric dietary therapy as a preferable therapeutic option when compared with the testing-directed diet and the elemental diet. Furthermore, topical glucocorticoid therapies are available, and new developing therapies are being investigated. Reevaluation of esophageal mucosa with biopsies is required approximately 2 months after therapy for a response and after a change in therapies to confirm continued resolution.
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Keywords: elemental diet; elimination diet; endoscopy; eosinophil; esophagitis; food allergy; patch testing; protein pump inhibitors; skin test; topical steroids

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: From the Divisions of Allergy/Immunology and Pediatric Gastroentrology, Nemours Children Specialty Care, Jacksonville, Florida; and 2: Simpson Allergy and Asthma, Lansdale, Pennsylvania

Publication date: January 1, 2022

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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