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Qualia, Gemütsphilosophie und Methodologie oder Wie wird aristotelische Scientia zu cartesianischer Unfehlbarkeit? Zum heutigen Widerstreit des Naturalismus und Cartesianismus

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The neologism, ,,Gemütsphilosophie" – roughly: philosophy of mindedness – I coined for this article, following Kant's use of ,,Gemüt" to render the Latin 'animus', and thus avoid opting for one pole of Cartesian dualism by speaking of 'mind' or 'soul'. Likewise my neologism is a precaution against potential errors cloaked by 'philosophy of mind' or 'philosophy of spirit' (,,Philosophie des Geistes"). The early Modern controversy between materialists and Cartesians today remains virulent, although – or perhaps because – contemporary 'internalists' and 'naturalists' rarely notice that the parameters of their debate are borrowed directly from the early Modern period. I examine and critically assess this historical-conceptual background in three stages. I begin with the key argument against naturalism to which Frederick Dretske (1998) replies (§ 2). This argument proves to be pure Cartesianism; its main methodological principle remains prevallent today, but it antedates Descartes. This principle is critically assessed both methodologically and historically (§§ 3–5). The second stage presents and critically examines the core principles of Dretske's 'Representationalist Thesis' (§§ 6, 7). These two stages issue, third, in a 'changed manner of thinking', which reveals the great extent to which much of 'contemporary', especially anglophone philosophy in principle is pre-Critical, indeed positively Mediaeval (§ 8).
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Language: German

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2017

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  • The journal Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung, appearing since 1946, is among the most important academic German language journals. It is open to all topics, approaches, and positions of philosophical thought. Given the increasing differentiation and specialization of the field, it thus constitutes a forum offering its various disciplines the opportunity for mutual recognition and exchange. The articles published in it are subject to an anonymous peer review in which internationally renowned scholars of all areas of contemporary philosophical research participate.

    Die seit 1946 erscheinende Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung gehört zu den wichtigsten deutschsprachigen Fachzeitschriften und steht allen Themen, Richtungen und Positionen der philosophischen Forschung offen. Angesichts der zunehmenden Ausdifferenzierung und Spezialisierung des Faches bietet sie damit auch ein Forum, in dem die verschiedenen Teildisziplinen sich gegenseitig wahrnehmen und in ein gemeinsames Gespräch kommen können. Die in ihr publizierten Abhandlungen durchlaufen ein anonymes Begutachtungsverfahren, an dem international anerkannte Forscher aus allen Spezialgebieten der gegenwärtigen philosophischen Forschung beteiligt sind.
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