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Science Classroom Learning Environments in Afghanistan: Assessment, Effects and Determinants

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Although the field of classroom learning environments has undergone remarkable expansion and internationalisation, no study in Afghanistan in any subject area or at any educational level has ever adopted a learning environment framework or involved the assessment and investigation of classroom environments. Our study in Afghanistan included seven learning environment scales from the widely-used What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire, together with two scales assessing the student attitudes of Enjoyment and Self-regulation. After minor modifications to suit the Afghani context, scales were translated into Dari (one of the two dominant languages in Afghanistan) and then independently back-translated to check the accuracy of the original translation. Analyses of data from 1619 grade 10‐12 science students supported the validity and reliability of the Dari-language scales. Past research in other countries was replicated in Afghanistan in that positive and statistically-significant associations were found between the learning environment and student attitudes. Some consistent patterns of gender differences and school-location differences (urban/rural) were identified.
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Keywords: Afghanistan; assessment; attitudes; determinants; effects; learning environment; sex differences; urban/rural differences

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2019

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  • Educational Practice and Theory is a bi-annual, independent, refereed journal which, since its launch in 1978, has become an important independent forum for original ideas in education. It publishes innovative and original research in the area. Its focus is both applied and theoretical and it seeks articles from a diverse range of themes and countries.
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