Science Classroom Learning Environments in Afghanistan: Assessment, Effects and Determinants
Although the field of classroom learning environments has undergone remarkable expansion and internationalisation, no study in Afghanistan in any subject area or at any educational level has ever adopted a learning environment framework or involved the assessment and investigation of classroom environments. Our study in Afghanistan included seven learning environment scales from the widely-used What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire, together with two scales assessing the student attitudes of Enjoyment and Self-regulation. After minor modifications to suit the Afghani context, scales were translated into Dari (one of the two dominant languages in Afghanistan) and then independently back-translated to check the accuracy of the original translation. Analyses of data from 1619 grade 10‐12 science students supported the validity and reliability of the Dari-language scales. Past research in other countries was replicated in Afghanistan in that positive and statistically-significant associations were found between the learning environment and student attitudes. Some consistent patterns of gender differences and school-location differences (urban/rural) were identified.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 1, 2019
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