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Free Content Mixing by microorganisms in stratified fluids

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We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P├ęclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, η, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates η in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, a, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, l = (νκ/N 2)1/4, where ν is the kinematic viscosity, κ the diffusivity, and N the buoyancy frequency. In particular, for small organisms in the relevant oceanic limit, a/l << 1, we predict the scaling η ∼ (a/l)3. The second estimate of η is formed by solving the full coupled flow-stratification problem by modeling the swimmer as a regularized force dipole, and computing the efficiency numerically. Our computational results, which are examined for all ratios a/ l, validate the scaling arguments in the limit a/ l << 1 and further predict η ≈ 1.2(a/l) 3 for vertical swimming and η ≈ 0.15 (a/l)3 for horizontal swimming. These results, relevant for any stratified fluid rich in biological activity, imply that the mixing efficiency of swimming microorganisms in the ocean is at very most 8% and is likely smaller by at least two orders of magnitude.

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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2014

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  • The Journal of Marine Research, one of the oldest journals in American marine science, publishes peer-reviewed research articles covering a broad array of topics in physical, biological and chemical oceanography. Articles that deal with processes, as well as those that report significant observations, are welcome. Biological studies involving coupling between ecological and physical processes are preferred over those that report systematics. The editors strive always to serve authors and readers in the academic oceanographic community by publishing papers vital to the marine research in the long and rich tradition of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research. We welcome you to the Journal of Marine Research.
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