Diagnostic imaging of hepatic tuberculosis: case series
METHODS: Single-centre retrospective evaluation of patients with hepatic TB diagnosed over a period of 16 years who underwent ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hepatic lesions were classified as miliary, nodular, serohepatic or cholangitis.
RESULTS: Of 14 patients with hepatic TB, five were co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. All patients had additional extrahepatic TB localisations. An interferon-gamma release assay was performed in 11/14 patients, ultrasound and CT were available for all patients and MRI for four. Observed patterns were miliary (n = 6) with multiple nodules < 2 cm; nodular (n = 5), characterised by a variable number of nodules (2–7 cm); and serohepatic (n = 3), with multiple nodular subcapsular lesions with a thin, smooth wall. Shared findings were hypoechoic lesions on ultrasound, hypodense lesions with ring enhancement on CT, while MRI lesions were hypointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound, CT and MRI can independently contribute to detection of hepatic TB. While a miliary pattern or calcifications are characteristic, no pattern is completely pathognomonic and the diagnosis depends on microbiological evidence. Particularly in risk groups, characteristic radiological findings may prompt targeted diagnostic work-up.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Radiology Unit 2: Translational Research Unit, L Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy 3: Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Publication date: 01 July 2018
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