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Direct costs of managing adverse drug reactions during rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the provider costs of managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to standard long-course treatment for multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) according to South African guidelines.

METHODS: We parameterised a published Markov health state model for MDR/RR-TB with guidelines-based, bottom-up public-sector provider costing of ADR management. Frequency of ADR occurrence was extracted from the literature. Costs were estimated over 10 years, discounted 3% annually and tested using probabilistic sensitivity analysis.

RESULTS: On average, guidelines-based costing of moderate ADRs weighted by the frequency of occurrence was US$135.76 (standard deviation [SD] US$17.18) and the cost of serious ADRs was US$521.29 (SD US$55.99). We estimated that the incremental costs of ADR management were US$380.17 annually per patient initiating MDR/RR-TB treatment. The incremental costs of ADR management for the public health sector in South Africa was US$4.76 million, 8.3% of the estimated cohort costs of MDR/RR-TB treatment ($57.55 million) for the 2015 cohort of 12 527 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Management of multiple ADRs and serious ADRs, which are common during the first 6 months of standard, long-course MDR/RR-TB treatment, substantially increases provider treatment costs. These results need to be taken into account when comparing regimen costs, and highlight the urgent need to identify drug regimens with improved safety profiles.

Keywords: Markov model; adverse events; budget impact; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Health Economics Unit, School of Family and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 2: Clinical HIV Research Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 3: Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, Health Economics & Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 4: Interactive Research & Development, Johannesburg, South Africa

Publication date: April 1, 2018

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