Correlates of observing and willingness to report stigma towards HIV clients by (TB) health workers in Africa
OBJECTIVE: To study the factors associated with the observation of and willingness to report stigmatising behaviour towards persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among health care workers (HCWs).
DESIGN: Mixed-effect logistic regression analyses of 9516 HCW interviews, including those of 4062 (43%) TB workers carried out as part of the Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) between 2006 and 2010.
RESULT: Discrimination (i.e., enacted stigma) was observed by respectively 1042 (60%), 384 (40%) and 907 (69%) TB workers in Kenya, Namibia and Tanzania, similar to the trend observed among all HCWs. Observations of discrimination were clustered at facility level in Kenya, and mapping of facility-level discrimination suggested geographic clustering. HCWs were more likely to observe discrimination in facilities without regular supportive supervision (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.33, 95%CI 1.09–4.96). No HCW characteristics were found to predict intention to report. Training in patients' rights and in confidentiality predisposed HCWs to recognise discrimination (aOR 2.51, 95%CI 1.19–5.28) and the willingness to report it (aOR 2.23, 95%CI 1.11–4.47). Exposure to training in TB infection control (IC) was associated with greater willingness to report discrimination (aOR 2.13, 95%CI 1.03–4.39).
CONCLUSION: Supervision and exposure to training in patient's rights and confidentiality improved HCWs' understanding and advocacy of dignified and respectful TB-HIV care. All HCWs are equally likely to be allies, agents of change and amplifiers of an anti-stigma message, and broad engagement is required. Innovative approaches to reduce discrimination—while ensuring proper IC—should be explored.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: KIT Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2: KNCV TB Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands
Publication date: November 1, 2017
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