Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Free Content Same-day sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: direct vs. concentrated smear

Download Article:
(PDF 151.5 kb)
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of sputum microscopy by the concentration method using spot and morning and same-day smears for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

METHODS: Three sputum specimens (spot, second spot and morning) were collected from study participants. Three smears were prepared from the direct sample and three using the N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide concentration method. The smears were stained using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, modified ZN (MZN) staining and fluorescent staining (FS). Smear results were pooled and compared in two categories: standard spot and morning, and same-day smears. The χ2 test was used to evaluate the statistical difference in smear-positive cases.

RESULTS: Among 3186 participants included in the study, smear positivity was respectively 9.6%, 9.8% and 10.8% for ZN, MZN and FS smears using spot and morning smears. Using same-day smears, smear positivity was respectively 9.5%, 9.8% and 10.6% for ZN, MZN and FS smears. Smear positivity increased to 16% with the concentration method.

CONCLUSION: Nil dropouts and patient convenience are the added advantages of using same-day smears, and the concentration method improved smear positivity. Given these advantages, using same-day smears with the concentration method should be considered by the World Health Organization and India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: ZN staining; fluorescent staining; modified ZN staining; same-day approach; spot and morning approach

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: *Department of Microbiology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry 2: Centre for Laboratory Animal Technology and Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 3: Department of Pathology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, India

Publication date: February 1, 2016

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on lung health world-wide.

    To share scientific research of immediate concern as rapidly as possible, The Union is fast-tracking the publication of certain articles from the IJTLD and publishing them on The Union website, prior to their publication in the Journal. Read fast-track articles.

    Certain IJTLD articles are also selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. These are available on the Union website.

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more