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Models for the Charging of Particles in Liquid Toners: A Summary

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Liquid toners have been used in the development of electrostatic images in digital printing since the midfifties. In this article, several models are discussed that were introduced to explain the processes responsible for charging toner particles. The acid-base models had to be extended by equilibrium models describing dynamic dissociation, adsorption and desorption. The important role of water traces in non-aqueous media for the dissociation of molecules and stabilization of ions was investigated. Later, electrical conditions were considered to explain specific high field effects by additional charge generation and relaxation processes. The focus of this article is on the models developed for the charging mechanisms. The enormous progress in measurement techniques that was necessary for improving and, in some cases, correcting the models is not described in detail here nor are models concerning practical issues in printing.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2004

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  • The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (JIST) is dedicated to the advancement of imaging science knowledge, the practical applications of such knowledge, and how imaging science relates to other fields of study. The pages of this journal are open to reports of new theoretical or experimental results, and to comprehensive reviews. Only original manuscripts that have not been previously published, nor currently submitted for publication elsewhere, should be submitted.

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    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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