Bile salt liposomes for enhanced lymphatic transport and oral bioavailability of paclitaxel
Paclitaxel (PTX), a BCS class IV drug that is characterized by its poor solubility and is a substrate for P-glycoprotein, is one of the most widely used antineoplastic agents. However, oral administration of PTX for chemotherapy is highly challenging. The aim of this study was to develop bile-salt liposomes (BS-Lips) to enhance the absorption of PTX and thus improve its therapeutic outcome. The BS-Lips were prepared by the thin-film hydration method and characterized in terms of particle size and morphology. Drug release and in vitro stability in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in media of different pH values were evaluated, as well as in vivo performance, including antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics in rats, with the plasma concentrations determined by a HPLC method. The PTX-loaded BS-Lips were successfully prepared with a diameter of approximately 150 nm and an entrapment efficiency of greater than 90 percent. Moreover, the BS-Lips were not affected by gastrointestinal enzymes or pH alternation, as evident from the unchanged particle size and the drug retained in BS-Lips after 6 h incubation. The insertion of bile salt into the lipid layer of liposomes increased the lymphatic transport of PTX by twofold. Importantly, BS-Lips increased the oral bioavailability of PTX by 2.5 and 4-fold, respectively, compared with conventional liposomes (Lips) and Taxol (free drug), thereby displaying a better inhibition of tumor growth that was similar to the group injected intravenously with Taxol. In conclusion, the BS-Lips represent promising vehicles for the oral delivery of PTX, thereby enabling an intravenous-to-oral switch for cancer chemotherapy.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2016
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