Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Open Access Kinetic Molecular Theory of Sound Exposure in Personal Listening Devices

Download Article:
 Download
(PDF 178.3 kb)
 
Noise-induced hearing loss associated with earbud use is an increasing trend in modern society. All smartphones are coupled with earbuds that expose the human auditory system to unsafe sound pressures. Acoustic waves enclosed in the ear canal force the tympanic membrane to move 100–1000 times greater than acoustic waves of equal amplitude in open air. Classical acoustics has not fully explained this biophysical phenomenon. Maxwell's kinetic molecular theory was used, in conjunction with Special relativity, to quantify sound pressure exposures in personal listening devices more accurately. A non-linear dependence of sound intensity on speaker excursion is predicted, demonstrating that earbuds sealed in the ear canal can exceed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's ceiling limit of 140 dB. Sound intensities predicted from molecular mass and velocity produce similar results to Beranek's model of acoustic waves in a closed, rigid cylinder and support previous observations of trapped volume insertion gain in personal listening devices.

© 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

12 References.

No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Short Communication

Publication date: May 1, 2017

More about this publication?
  • Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Online User License
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more