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On the Spectral Shape of the Sound Generated by Standard Tapping Machines

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The standard tapping machine is the most widely used sound source to measure impact noise. The five hammers hitting at a frequency of 2 Hz each are usually modelled as one hammer acting at a frequency of 10 Hz. Starting with the experimental finding that measured velocity spectra exhibit a clear 2 Hz line spectrum, an analytical calculation model is derived to determine the sound power emitted by a five hammer configuration into infinitely large reception plates. The experimentally found 2 Hz line spectrum can be partly explained by runtime eff ects of the bending waves originating from an assembly of five point sources. Even more influential are the deviations between real tapping machines and the ideal tapping machine as described in ISO standard 10140. For the description of real tapping machines, measured impact velocities and time histories of the impacts could be used. These data are available at PTB from conformity tests with tapping machines. The conclusion is that real standard tapping machines emit a 2 Hz line spectrum which enables measurements down to the 50 Hz one-third octave band with an acceptable uncertainty.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2012

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  • Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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