The Spectrum of Glottal Flow Models
A unified description of the most-common glottal-flow models (KLGLOTT88, Rosenberg C, R++, LF) is proposed in the time domain, using a set of five generic glottal-flow parameters: fundamental period, maximum excitation, open quotient, asymmetry coefficient, and return-phase quotient. A unified set of time-domain equations is derived, and their analytical Laplace-transform computation leads to a set of frequency-domain equations. On the basis of this mathematical framework, the spectral properties of the glottal-flow models and their derivatives are studied. It is shown that any glottal-flow model can be described by a combination of low-pass filters, the cut-off frequencies and amplitudes of which can be expressed directly in terms of time-domain parameters. The spectral correlates of time-domain glottal-flow parameters are then explored. It is shown that the maximum excitation corresponds to a gain factor, and that it controls the mid-to-high-frequency spectral slope. A non-null return-phase quotient adds an additional spectral tilt in the high-frequency part of the glottal-flow spectrum. The open quotient and asymmetry coefficient are related to the low-frequency spectral peak, also called the glottal formant. The glottal-formant frequency is mainly controlled by the open quotient, and its amplitude (or bandwidth) by the asymmetry coefficient. As a direct application, it is shown that the amplitude difference between the first two harmonics, commonly assumed to be correlated to the open quotient, is also theoretically dependent on the asymmetry coefficient.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2006
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- Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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