Measuring and Modeling Basic Properties of the Human Middle Ear and Ear Canal. Part II: Ear Canal, Middle Ear Cavities, Eardrum, and Ossicles
In this the second part of our paper on the acoustical and mechanical properties of the middle ear and the ear canal (the other two parts are provided in [1, 2]) most of the measurements are presented. This part provides all the measurements referring to subsystems of the outer and middle ear. Such subsystems are: the ear canal and its radiation impedance, the middle ear cavities, the "kernel" consisting of the eardrum, the malleus, and the incus including the suspension by ligaments and the tensor tympani, the stapes including the suspension by the annular ligament and the tensor stapedii, the cochlea input impedance, and the two joints between the malleus and incus, and between the incus and stapes. All the measurements are compared to the corresponding predictions of our model and, as far as possible, to Shaw's model from 1981 . If the properties of all these subsystems are known, various over-all characteristics (transfer functions and impedances) can be calculated, assuming that the one-dimensional model gives correct predictions. In fact, such transfer functions that combine the effect of several subsystems were measured in addition and will be presented in part III. It is important to know that the model predictions given in this paper are not optimally fitted to the corresponding measurements in the subsystems. Instead a single set of model parameters is derived which was chosen to fit all the measurements simultaneously. This fixed set of parameters is used throughout all three parts of this paper to show that the measurements are consistent within useful tolerances.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 1998
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- Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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