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Sonar Evaluation in Natural Environment

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In a natural environment, the sonar system of bats has three main roles: detection, locating, and recognition (classification) of targets and obstacles. The bat is faced with the resolving of an inverse problem such as: starting from the received echo, how to get the best information on the target shape, size, and position.

In such an environment, many phenomena will disturb the resolution of this problem and bring major limitations to the information that can be obtained from the received signal; let us mention, as examples, the target relative position, the movement of the target (with respect to the sonar system), the ambient noise, the reverberation, etc.

We will give a review of these various perturbing phenomena and give examples of the compensation of such efects in well-known sonar systems.


In einer natürlichen Umgebung besitzt das Sonarsystem der Fledermäuse drei wesentliche Funktionen: die Auffindung, die Lokalisierung und Erkennung (Klassifikation) von Zielen und Hindernissen. Die Fledermaus ist mit einem inversen Beugungsproblem konfrontiert, nämlich aufgrund des empfangenen Echos so gut wie möglich die Gestalt, die Größe und die Position des Zieles zu rekonstruieren.

In natürlicher Umgebung stören mehrere Umstände die Lösung dieses Problems und vermindern die Information, die man dem Empfangssignal entnehmen kann, so zum Beispiel die relative Lage und Bewegung von Sonarsystem und Ziel, das Umgebungsgeräusch, der Nachhall usw.

Es wird ein Überblick über die verschiedenen Störursachen gegeben und es werden Beispiele dafür angeführt, wie in bekannten klassischen Sonarsystemen diese Effekte kompensiert werden.


Dans un environnement naturel, le système sonar des chauves-souris possède trois fonctions essentielles: la détection, la localisation et la reconnaissance (classification) des cibles et des obstacles. La chauve-souris se trouve confrontée à la résolution d'un problème inverse du type suivant: à partir des échos reçus, comment remonter, au mieux, à la forme, la taille et la position de la cible correspondante?

Dans un tel environnement, plusieurs phénomènes viennent perturber la résolution de ce problème et limiter l'information que l'on peut extraire du signal reçu; citons, à titre d'exemple, la position sonar-cible, le mouvement relatif sonar-cible, le bruit ambiant, la réverbération, etc.

Nous passerons en revue ces divers phénomènes perturbateurs et nous donnerons des exemples de compensation de ces effets dans les systèmes sonar classiques connus.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 1986

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  • Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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