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Model Studies of Scattering of Underwater Sound by the Sea Surface Caused by Waves and Air Bubble Screens in the Upper Layers

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Experimental investigations of scattering by the sea surface are conducted on a model to separate the two scattering components, volume scattering by a bubble screen closely below the surface and scattering by the irregular sea surface. Volume scattering by the bubble screen may be described quantitatively by the Lommel-Seeliger illumination law of photometric optics valid for a secondary radiator, while known theories of sound scattering describe the surface scattering by periodic and randomly irregular model surfaces. The directional pattern of sound scattered by irregular resilient surfaces behind a layer containing air bubbles is determined almost exclusively by surface scattering for bubble concentrations of up to 1·10−3. Backscattering at angles larger than 60°, however, is dominated by volume scattering. For bubble concentrations of more than 4·10−3 backscattering and the directional pattern of the scattered sound for all angles show the influence of volume scattering only (masking of the irregular surfaces); the Lommel-Seeliger law again describes the directional dependence of the scattering.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 1969

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  • Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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