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An Experimental and Numerical Study on Nodular Gel Phantom During Cryotherapy

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BACKGROUND: Cryogen spray cooling is an effective method to treat nodular basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of spraying distance (z = 27 mm, 18 mm and 9 mm) on a nodular gel phantom and to validate the numerical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liquid nitrogen is sprayed on agarose gel phantom using 0.8 mm nozzle diameter. A two-dimensional Pennes equation with phase change is solved on the axisymmetric non-orthogonal grid. RESULTS: The lethal front is obtained at 4 mm from the gel surface, irrespective of spraying distance and the same is validated with numerical results. The maximum necrotic volume and lethal front achieved by -50°C and -25°C isotherms seem to have a lower dependence on the spraying distance as opposed to those corresponding to the 0ºC isotherm. In contrast, the initiation of these parameters is highly dependent on the nozzle to gel height. CONCLUSION: The numerical study presents good agreement with experimental data. The decrease in spraying distance leads to higher rate of maximum ablation volume during freezing, but final ablation volume remained approximately similar.
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Keywords: ABLATION VOLUME; BASAL CELL CARCINOMA; CRYOSPRAY; GEL PHANTOM; LETHAL FRONT

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2018

More about this publication?
  • CryoLetters is a bimonthly international journal for low temperature sciences, including cryobiology, cryopreservation or vitrification of cells and tissues, chemical and physical aspects of freezing and drying, and studies involving ecology of cold environments, and cold adaptation

    The journal publishes original research reports, authoritative reviews, technical developments and commissioned book reviews of studies of the effects produced by low temperatures on a wide variety of scientific and technical processes, or those involving low temperature techniques in the investigation of physical, chemical, biological and ecological problems.

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