Effects of freezing on apoptosis and autophagy in embryos are poorly understood. This study introduces a simple and successful method (modified cut standard straw, M-CSS) for cryopreservation of mouse zygotes. Apoptosis and autophagy were investigated in cultured mouse blastocysts derived
from vitrified zygotes using two vitrification containers (M-CSS vs 0.25-ml straw). The percentages of zygotes that survived and developed into blastocysts and the number of cells per blastocyst were higher in the M-CSS group than in the 0.25 ml straw group; whereas the rate of apoptosis in
blastocysts was significantly lower in the M-CSS group than in the 0.25-ml straw group. The expression of the apoptosis-related gene Caspase 3 in blastocysts was higher in the 0.25-ml straw group than in the M-CSS group; however, there were no significant differences in autophagy between
these two groups. Vitrified-thawed mouse zygotes were transferred into recipients. The percentage of recipients that became pregnant and the percentage of transferred zygotes that developed into live offspring were significantly lower in the 0.25-ml straw group than in the M-CSS (10.2% vs.
17.5%). In conclusion, the novel M-CSS procedure improves oocyte and embryo vitrification. The standard 0.25-ml straw vitrification procedure induces mitochondrial apoptosis in zygotes in an autophagy-independent manner.
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MODIFIED CUT STANDARD STRAW;
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2013
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CryoLetters is a bimonthly international journal for low temperature sciences, including cryobiology, cryopreservation or vitrification of cells and tissues, chemical and physical aspects of freezing and drying, and studies involving ecology of cold environments, and cold adaptation
The journal publishes original research reports, authoritative reviews, technical developments and commissioned book reviews of studies of the effects produced by low temperatures on a wide variety of scientific and technical processes, or those involving low temperature techniques in the investigation of physical, chemical, biological and ecological problems.