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Open Access Regulation of Acetate Utilization by Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

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Altered energy metabolism is a biochemical fingerprint of cancer cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows reciprocal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [11C]acetate uptake, as revealed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Previous studies have focused on the role of FDG uptake in cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism and roles of [11C]acetate uptake in human HCCs and cell lines. The expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) was assessed to determine the transporters of [11C]acetate uptake in HCC cell lines and human HCCs with different [11C]acetate uptake. Using two representative cell lines with widely different [11C]acetate uptake (HepG2 for high uptake and Hep3B for low uptake), changes in [11C]acetate uptake were measured after treatment with an MCT1 inhibitor or MCT1-targeted siRNA. To verify the roles of MCT1 in cells, oxygen consumption rate and the amount of lipid synthesis were measured. HepG2 cells with high [11C]acetate uptake showed higher MCT1 expression than other HCC cell lines with low [11C]acetate uptake. MCT1 expression was elevated in human HCCs with high [11C]acetate uptake compared to those with low [11C]acetate uptake. After blocking MCT1 with AR-C155858 or MCT1 knockdown, [11C]acetate uptake in HepG2 cells was significantly reduced. Additionally, inhibition of MCT1 suppressed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, lipid synthesis, and cellular proliferation in HCC cells with high [11C]acetate uptake. MCT1 may be a new therapeutic target for acetate-dependent HCCs with high [11C]acetate uptake, which can be selected by [11C]acetate PET/CT imaging in clinical practice.
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Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT); Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT); [11C]Acetate uptake

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea 2: Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA

Publication date: January 19, 2018

This article was made available online on March 23, 2017 as a Fast Track article with title: "Regulation of Acetate Utilization By Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)".

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