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Open Access Sorafenib and 2-Deoxyglucose Synergistically Inhibit Proliferation of Both Sorafenib-Sensitive and -Resistant HCC Cells by Inhibiting ATP Production

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally. Sorafenib is the only first-line systemic drug for advanced HCC, but it has very limited survival benefits because patients treated with sorafenib either suffer from side effects or show disease progression after initial response. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies for first-line and second-line therapies. The association between sorafenib resistance and glycolysis prompted us to screen several drugs with known antiglycolytic activity to identify those that will sensitize cells to sorafenib. We demonstrate that the combination of glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and sorafenib drastically inhibits viability of sorafenib-sensitive and -resistant cells. However, the combination of other antiglycolytic drugs like lonidamine, gossypol, 3-bromopyruvate, and imatinib with sorafenib does not show synergistic effect. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the combination of 2DG and sorafenib induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. Mechanistic investigation suggests that the cell cycle arrest is due to depletion of cellular ATP that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which, in turn, inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to induce cell cycle arrest. This study provides strong evidence for the therapeutic potential of the combination of sorafenib and 2DG for HCC.
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Keywords: 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG); Glycolysis; Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Resistance; Sorafenib

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Publication date: February 10, 2017

This article was made available online on November 16, 2016 as a Fast Track article with title: "Sorafenib and 2-Deoxyglucose Synergistically Inhibit Proliferation of both Sorafenib Sensitive and Resistant HCC Cells by Inhibiting ATP Production".

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  • Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research will publish articles in all aspects of hepatology. Hepatology, as a research discipline, has seen unprecedented growth especially in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatic health and disease, which continues to have a major impact on understanding liver development, stem cells, carcinogenesis, tissue engineering, injury, repair, regeneration, immunology, metabolism, fibrosis, and transplantation. Continued research and improved understanding in these areas will have a meaningful impact on liver disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The existing journal Gene Expression has expanded its focus to become Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research to meet this growing demand. In its revised and expanded scope, the journal will publish high-impact original articles, reviews, short but complete articles, and special articles (editorials, commentaries, opinions) on all aspects of hepatology, making it a unique and invaluable resource for readers interested in this field. The expanded team, led by an Editor-in-Chief who is uniquely qualified and a renowned expert, along with a dynamic and functional editorial board, is determined to make this a premier journal in the field of hepatology.

    From Volume 16, Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND license.

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