Modulation of c-myc, max, and mad Gene Expression During Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells by All-trans-Retinoic Acid
c-Myc regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Temporal expression of c-Myc during all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-mediated neural differentiation in murine embryonic stem cell (ES) was investigated. Correlation to the modulation of dimerizing partners Max and Mad that may influence c-Myc signaling and transcription regulation was elucidated for the first time in these cells. In RA-treated cells, increase in c-myc mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on days 11 and 14 of differentiation compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The results were further corroborated by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Western blots revealed an increase in c-Myc protein only on day 14 of differentiation in RA-treated cells. Increases in max and mad gene transcription detected by RPA at times of elevated c-Myc in RA-treated ES cells suggest that a transient increase in c-Myc protein expression may influence differential dimerization of Myc partners needed for signaling in the neural differentiation of ES cells.
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
Publication date: March 1, 2002
More about this publication?
- Gene Expression, The Journal of Liver Research will publish articles in all aspects of hepatology. Hepatology, as a research discipline, has seen unprecedented growth especially in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatic health and disease, which continues to have a major impact on understanding liver development, stem cells, carcinogenesis, tissue engineering, injury, repair, regeneration, immunology, metabolism, fibrosis, and transplantation. Continued research and improved understanding in these areas will have a meaningful impact on liver disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The existing journal Gene Expression has expanded its focus to become Gene Expression, The Journal of Liver Research to meet this growing demand. In its revised and expanded scope, the journal will publish high-impact original articles, reviews, short but complete articles, and special articles (editorials, commentaries, opinions) on all aspects of hepatology, making it a unique and invaluable resource for readers interested in this field. The expanded team, led by an Editor-in-Chief who is uniquely qualified and a renowned expert, along with a dynamic and functional editorial board, is determined to make this a premier journal in the field of hepatology.