We have characterized the function of putative regulatory sequences upon the smooth muscle transcription of the SMGA gene, using promoter deletion analyses. We demonstrate that the SMGA promoter contains four domains: a basal promoter (−1 to −100), a smooth muscle specifier
sequence (−100 to −400), a negative regulator (−400 to −1000), and a smooth muscle-specific modulator (−1000 to −2000). The basal or core promoter supports equivalent transcription in both smooth and skeletal muscle cells. Addition of sequences containing
a CArG motif juxtaposed to an E-box element stimulates smooth muscle transcription by five- to sixfold compared to skeletal muscle. This smooth muscle-specific segment is maintained for about 200 bp, after which is a segment of DNA that appears to inhibit the transcriptional capacity of the
SMGA promoter in smooth muscle cells. Within the boundary between the smooth muscle specifier and negative regulatory sequences (−400 to −500) are three E-box elements. The smooth muscle modulator domain contains two CArG elements and multiple Eboxes. When added to the SMGA promoter
it causes an additional three- to fivefold increase in smooth musclespecific transcription over that stimulated by the smooth muscle specifier domain. Thus, our studies show that the appropriate cell-specific transcription of the SMGA gene involves complex interactions directed by multiple
cis-acting elements. Moreover, our characterization of a cell culture system employing embryonic gizzard smooth muscle cells lays the foundation for further molecular analyses of factors that regulate or control SMGA and other smooth muscle genes during differentiation.
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Developmental gene regulation;
Smooth muscle differentiation;
Visceral smooth muscle
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1998
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Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research will publish articles in all aspects of hepatology. Hepatology, as a research discipline, has seen unprecedented growth especially in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatic health and disease, which continues to have a major impact on understanding liver development, stem cells, carcinogenesis, tissue engineering, injury, repair, regeneration, immunology, metabolism, fibrosis, and transplantation. Continued research and improved understanding in these areas will have a meaningful impact on liver disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The existing journal Gene Expression has expanded its focus to become Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research to meet this growing demand. In its revised and expanded scope, the journal will publish high-impact original articles, reviews, short but complete articles, and special articles (editorials, commentaries, opinions) on all aspects of hepatology, making it a unique and invaluable resource for readers interested in this field. The expanded team, led by an Editor-in-Chief who is uniquely qualified and a renowned expert, along with a dynamic and functional editorial board, is determined to make this a premier journal in the field of hepatology.
From Volume 16, Gene Expression The Journal of Liver Research is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND license.