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Damage detection on laminated composite materials using several NDT techniques

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the features and capabilities of four different methods when utilised to detect and quantify impact damage on composite laminates subjected to low-velocity impact. Carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite was used and the experimental tests were performed on [0,90,0,90]2s and [904,04]S laminates using a drop-weight testing machine. The tests were performed with an impact energy of 3 J, corresponding to a maximum load of 3000 N. The damage in the laminates was analysed by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), shearography, ultrasonic testing and X-radiography. All these techniques were able to detect almost all the defects, although the interferometric methods showed some limitations. X-radiography is an interesting alternative technique, but was not able to localise delaminations in the thickness direction. The ultrasonic methods, A-scan and C-scan, were shown to be the best solutions for inspecting the samples. According to the experimental results, these techniques were able to detect and measure the damage extent with great precision.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2012

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