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Investigation of Human Papilloma Virus Associated with Oral Cancer with an Insight into Diagnostic Approaches and Recent Patents

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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the sixth most common cancers worldwide, accounting for 633000 new cases annually. The etiology of HNSCC is considered to be multifactorial. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are well-established risk factors for HNSCCs. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) particularly subtype 16 has been proposed as a risk factor in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development. Other oncogenic virus species i.e., Epstein Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 have also been proposed to be involved in oral carcinogenesis. Recent trends show that there is a decrease in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma associated with the tobacco use and increase in the HPV associated with OSCC. The identification of HPV in oropharyngeal carcinomas has clinical implications resulting in better prognosis, longer survival and higher rate of response to therapy as compared to HPV negative oral cancer cases. The current paper reviews the different investigative approaches used towards oncoviruses particularly human papilloma virus (subtype-16) using polymerase chain reaction(PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) technique for HPV DNA, and E6/E7 messenger RNA, with p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate marker, and also includes the recent patents. An attempt is being made to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of all the diagnostic tests.
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Keywords: Human papilloma virus; in situ hybridization; oncoviruses; oral cancer; patents; polymerase chain reaction

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2014

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  • Recent Patents on Biomarkers publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on important recent patents on biomarkers. The coverage includes novel biomarkers in basic, medical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. A selection of important and recent patents on biomarkers is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in biomarker research and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging patent biomarker applications; discovery and validation are covered for drug discovery, clinical development and molecular diagnostics.
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