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Tumor Angiogenesis: A Target for Renal Cell Carcinoma Therapy. Current Perspectives and Novel Strategies

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Tumor angiogenesis is a complex multistep process, resulting from the imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors in tumor environment. A crucial role in this process is played by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Its expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is mostly regulated by hypoxia and it is associated with the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. The importance of identifying VEGF-independent pathways in tumor angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as result of the emerging drug resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. Advances in knowledge of tumor angiogenesis, growth and progression permit to develop new approaches for the treatment of mRCC, targeting not only VEGF and VEGF tyrosine kinase receptors (VEGFRs) tyrosine kinase pathway, but also serine/threonine kinases, α5β1-integrin, AKT, PI3K and STAT3. Starting from sorafenib and sunitinib, several agents have been approved, with a long list of drugs, as well as axitinib, tivozanib, cediranib and VEGF-Trap, presently in course of evaluation. Here, we illustrate the principal steps of tumor angiogenic process; showing approved anti-angiogenic agents, the emerging molecules currently under evaluation and some relevant patents.
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Keywords: AKT inhibitor; Clinical trials; Integrin receptors; VEGF; VEGFR-1; angiogenesis; biomarkers; renal cancer; targeted therapy; tumor angiogenesis

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2012

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  • Recent Patents on Biomarkers publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on important recent patents on biomarkers. The coverage includes novel biomarkers in basic, medical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. A selection of important and recent patents on biomarkers is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in biomarker research and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging patent biomarker applications; discovery and validation are covered for drug discovery, clinical development and molecular diagnostics.
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