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Diketo Acids Derivatives as Integrase Inhibitors: The War Against the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Since the human immunodeficiency virus was identified as etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, great advances have been accomplished in the therapeutic field leading to reduced morbidity and mortality among infected patients. However, the high mutation rate of the viral genome generates strains resistant to multiple drugs, pointing to the importance of finding new therapeutic targets. Among the HIV structural genes, the POL gene codes for three essential enzymes: reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase; nineteen of the twenty drugs currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat this viral infection, inhibit the reverse transcriptase and the protease. Although intense research has been carried out in this area during the last 10 years, HIV integrase inhibitors are not yet approved for clinical use; however the fact that presence of this enzyme is a sine qua non for a productive HIV life cycle joined to its unique properties makes it a promissory target for anti-HIV therapy. Many compounds have been claimed to inhibit integrase in vitro; however, few of them have proven to have antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity in cell systems. Diketoacid derivatives are the most promising integrase inhibitors so far reported. Initially discovered independently by Shionogi & Co. and the Merck Research Laboratories, these compounds are highly specific for the integrase with potent antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo, and low cytotoxicity in cell cultures. Some of these compounds have recently entered clinical trials. Due to the high relevance of integrase inhibitors, and specifically of diketoacid derivatives, we review the latest findings and patents in this important field of research.

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Keywords: AIDS; HAART; HIV; diketoacids; inhibitors; integrase

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Group of Immunovirology, University of Antioquia, Calle 62, No. 52-29, Torre 2, Lab 532, MedellĂ­n, Colombia.

Publication date: June 1, 2006

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  • Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery publishes review articles on recent patents in the field of anti-infective drug discovery e.g. on novel bioactive compounds, analogs & targets. A selection of important and recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in anti-infective drug design and discovery.
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