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Magainin-Related Peptides Stimulate Insulin-Release and Improve Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Mice

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Earlier peptidomic analysis of the skin secretion of Xenopus amieti led to the identification of orthologs of magainins and other peptides. This study investigated the degradation, in vitro insulin-releasing and acute metabolic effects of magainin-AM1 (GIKEFAHSLGKFG KAFVGGILNQ) and magainin–AM2 (GVSKILHSAGKFGKAFLGEIMKS). Plasma degradation was investigated using reversed-phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Insulin-releasing effects were determined using BRIN-BD11 clonal beta cells and mouse islets. Effects of magainin peptides on cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase release, membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ concentration were assessed using BRIN-BD11 cells while their in vivo effects on glucose tolerance and insulin release were assessed in obese, insulin-resistant Swiss National Institute of Health (NIH) mice. Both peptides were resistant to degradation by plasma enzymes in vitro for up to 8 h. Though magainin-AM1 elicited non-toxic, concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin-release from clonal BRINBD11 cells at concentrations ≥ 100nM, magainin-AM2 produced a higher stimulation of insulin-release from BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse islets. Membrane depolarization and intracellular [Ca2+]i in BRIN-BD11 cells were significantly (P<0.05) induced by both peptides and chelation of extracellular Ca2+, addition of diazoxide or verapamil significantly (P<0.01) reduced the insulinotropic actions of the peptides. Administration of magainin-AM2 (75 nmol/kg body weight) to high-fat fed mice significantly enhanced insulin-release (P<0.01) and improved glucose tolerance (P<0.05). These data indicate magainin-AM2 peptides have potential for development into agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Keywords: Glucose tolerance; high fat-fed mice; host-defence peptides; insulin-release; magainin

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2015

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  • Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.
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