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Functional Roles of EF-Hands in Human Potassium Channel-Interacting Protein 2.2

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Single site-directed mutations at each of the four EF-hand loops of potassium channel-interacting protein 2.2 (KChIP2.2) were carried out to explore the functional roles of EF-hands in KChIP2.2. In contrast to those on EF-hands 1 and 2, mutations on EF-hands 3 or 4 distorted the high affinity Ca2+-binding site of KChIP2.2. However, the Mg2+-binding ability of KChIP2.2 was marginally affected by the mutations. The gross conformation of mutated KChIP2.2 was indistinguishable from wild-type KChIP2.2 as revealed by CD spectra. The results of size exclusion chromatography showed that, with exception of EF-hand 4 mutant, mutations on EF-hands 1, 2 or 3 caused KChIP2.2 to form oligomer. Pull-down assay revealed that, unlike wild-type KChIP2.2, the interaction between mutated KChIP2.2 and Kv4.2 was not notably enhanced by Ca2+ and Mg2+. Coexpression of Kv4.2 and KChIP2.2 in HeLa cells revealed that mutations on EF-hands did not alter the intracellular co-localization of KChIP2.2 and Kv4.2. Together with previous findings that EF-hand mutants of KChIP proteins are unable to regulate the kinetics of Kv4.2, our data show that the intact EF-hands should be crucial for the formation of active conformation of KChIP2.2 when the protein is loaded with Ca2+ and Mg2+.

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Keywords: EF-hand mutant; KChIP; Metal-binding properties; Oligomerization

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2009

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  • Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.
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