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Review of the Literature Examining the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Osteoporosis and Mechanistic Insights into Its Effect on Bone Metabolism

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Background And Objective: Osteoporosis is a common bone disorder that increases susceptibility to fragility bone fractures. The clinical and public health repercussions of osteoporosis are huge due to the morbidity, mortality, and cost of medical care linked with fragility fractures. Clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk factors can help to identify candidates at an early stage that will benefit from medical intervention and potentially lowering the morbidity and mortality seen with fractures and complications. Given this, research is ongoing to evaluate the association of osteoporosis with some novel or less well-studied risk factors/bio-markers such as uric acid (UA).

Discussion: Uric acid’s antioxidant activity has been proposed to be one of the factors responsible for increasing longevity and lowering rates of age-related cancers during primate evolution, the level of which increased markedly due to loss of uricase enzyme activity (mutational silencing). Accumulated evidence shows that oxidative stress is the fundamental mechanism of age-related bone loss and acts via enhancing osteoclastic activity and increasing bone resorption. Antioxidant substances such as ascorbic acid scavenge free radicals are positively related to bone health. Thus, it is hypothesized that uric acid holds bone-protective potential owing to its potent antioxidative property. Several correlation studies have been conducted globally to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid with bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Few pre-clinical studies have tried to investigate the interaction between uric acid and bone mineral density and reported important role played via Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2)/core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1), Wingless-related integration site (Wnt)-3a/β-catenin signaling pathway and 11β Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1.

Conclusion: In this review, the authors provided a comprehensive summary of the literature related to association studies reported in humans as well work done until date to understand the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms that interplay between uric acid and bone metabolism.
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Keywords: Uric acid; Wnt-3a/β-catenin signaling pathway; antioxidant; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; uricase

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: May 1, 2019

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  • This journal is devoted to timely reviews of experimental and clinical studies in the field of endocrine, metabolic, and immune disorders. Specific emphasis is placed on humoral and cellular targets for natural, synthetic, and genetically engineered drugs that enhance or impair endocrine, metabolic, and immune parameters and functions. Topics related to the neuroendocrine-immune axis are given special emphasis in view of the growing interest in stress-related, inflammatory, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders.
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