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The Effects of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Inhibitors on Hepatic Efflux and Uptake Transporters

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Background: Non-selective chemical inhibitors of phase I and phase II enzymes are commonly used in in vitro metabolic studies to elucidate the biotransformation pathways of drugs. However, the inhibition of the inhibitors on efflux and uptake transporters is not well investigated, potentially leading to unexpected and ambiguous results in these studies.

Objective: The commonly used metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), SKF- 525A, pargyline, allopurinol, menadione, methimazole, piperine and raloxifene, were examined for their potential inhibition of the major hepatic ABC (ATP binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters.

Methods: Different concentrations of the metabolizing enzyme inhibitors were used to study their effects on ABC and SLC transporters expressed in MDR1-MDCKI, Bcrp1-MDCKII, OATP1B1-HEK, OATP1B3-HEK, OCT1-HEK, OCT3-HEK cells and MRP2 vesicles.

Results: ABT, allopurinol and methimazole had no inhibitory effects on MDR1, Bcrp1, MRP2 or on OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 or OCT3. Pargyline did not inhibit OATP1B1 or OATP1B3, but weakly inhibited OCT1 and OCT3. In contrast, SKF-525A showed inhibition of not only MDR1, Bcrp1 and MRP2 but also OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OCT1. Menadione and raloxifene weakly inhibited Bcrp1, but the inhibition of raloxifene on MDR1 was as potent as on the xanthine oxidase pterin oxidation. Piperine showed inhibition of MDR1, Bcrp1, OATP1B1, OCT1 and OCT3.

Conclusion: ABT, pargyline, allopurinol and methimazole have no inhibitory effects on the studied ABC and SLC transporters, suggesting the inhibitors are unlikely to cause confounding inhibition of transporters when used in metabolism studies. However, SKF525A, menadione, raloxifene and piperine can inhibit the activities of ABC and/or SLC transporters.
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Keywords: Metabolic inhibitors; breast cancer resistance protein; cytochrome P450; multidrug resistance protein; multidrug resistance-associated protein 2; organic anion transporting polypeptide; organic cation transporters

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2017

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  • Drug Metabolism Letters publishes short papers on major advances in all areas of drug metabolism and disposition. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers very rapidly. Letters will be processed rapidly by taking full advantage of the Internet technology for both the submission and review of manuscripts. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites, reactive intermediate and glutathione conjugates.
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