In Vitro and In Vivo Antifilarial Activity of Standardized Extract of Calotropis procera Flowers against Brugia malayi
Objective: In the present study, the antifilarial activity of ethanolic extract (A001) and its hexane fraction (F001) of C. procera flowers was investigated using the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi.
Methods: A001 and F001 were tested for antifilarial activity using motility and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays (in vitro) and in the rodent models B. malayi- Meriones unguiculatus and B. malayi-Mastomys coucha. In the rodent models, A001 and F001 were administered orally for 5 consecutive days, and the adult worm burden and course of microfilaraemia were determined.
Results: Both A001 and F001 showed microfilaricidal and macrofilaricidal activity in vitro. In animal models, A001 killed ~49-54% adult worms. In M. coucha model, F001 killed 12-60% adult worms in a dose (125-500 mg/kg) dependent manner; A001 and F001 suppressed microfilaraemia till days 91 and 35 post initiation of treatment, respectively. HPTLC revealed 0.61% lupeol, 0.50% β-sitosterol and 1.50% triacontanol in F001.
Conclusion: Flowers of C. procera have definite microfilaricidal and macrofilaricidal activities. Whether this activity is due to lupeol, β-sitosterol and triacontanol found in the hexane fraction remains to be investigated. This is the first report on the antifilarial efficacy of flowers of the plant C. procera.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: May 1, 2019
This article was made available online on July 9, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "In Vitro and In Vivo Antifilarial Activity of Standardized Extract of Calotropis procera Flowers against Brugia malayi".