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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity Evaluation of the Lebanese Propolis Extract

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Background: Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees and known to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities.

Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of the Crude Ethanolic Extract (CE) of Lebanese propolis and its Ethyl Acetate Fraction (EAF).

Method: Chemical content of propolis was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography and LC-MS/MS. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) release in LPS-activated RAW monocytes were achieved respectively by western blot and spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Measurement of paw thickness in carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and pathologic assessment of inflammation in paw sections were used to judge the anti-inflammatory properties of propolis.

Results: Pathology analysis revealed in the treated group significant reduction of immune cell infiltration and edema. Both extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in LPS-treated RAW cells characterized by the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS protein expression, as well as PGE2 and NO release. Chemical analysis of the crude extract and its ethyl acetate fraction identified 28 different compounds of which two phenolic acids and nine other flavonoids were also quantified. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chrysin, galangin, quercetin, and pinocembrin were among the most representative compounds.

Conclusion: Lebanese propolis is rich in a various amount of flavonoids which showed promising antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Additionally, chemical analysis showed unique chemical compositions with the potential of identifying ingredients with interesting anti-inflammatory activities.
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Keywords: Lebanese propolis; antioxidant; chromatography; flavonoids; inflammation; phenolic acids

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2019

This article was made available online on February 26, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity Evaluation of the Lebanese Propolis Extract".

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  • Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Each issue of the journal contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in both pre-clinical and clinical areas of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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