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Innovative Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Serious Adverse Events Related to Both Chemo-Radiotherapy Protocol and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Syndrome: The Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Post-Treatment Reduces Hematopoietic Toxicity and Promotes Hematopoietic Reconstitution

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Bone marrow stroma is damaged by chemotherapy and irradiation protocol. Bone marrow microenvironment supports haematopoiesis and comprises Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). Coinfusion of MSCs with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) improves engraftment and accelerates haematopoietic recovery. Stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a chemotactic factor which plays a crucial role in stem cell transplantation by enhancing the ability of HSC to engraft. In this study expression of SDF-1 in bone marrow MSCs and the level of Colony Forming Unit Fibroblast (CFU-F) were evaluated in 8 patients with Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML). Evaluation was done at diagnosis and after induction/consolidation chemotherapy before the onset of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CFU-F frequency increases from diagnosis to remission. Nevertheless level of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) transcripts in bone marrow MSCs of patients with AML stays low. Considering the role of SDF-1 in the homing of HSC, the consequences of SDF-1 deficiency observed in this study might be deleterious on the engraftment after HSCT and haematopoietic recovery. The whole result of this clinical study is an argument for MSC infusion to restore a normal level of SDF1 in the bone marrow microenvironment that could reduce hematopoietic toxicity of chemotherapy and improve HSC engraftment after HSCT.
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Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Bone marrow microenvironment; Chemo-radiotherapy; Engraftment and haematopoietic recovery; Hematopoietic stem cells transplantation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2013

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  • Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Each issue of the journal contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in both pre-clinical and clinical areas of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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