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Microwave Assisted Preparation of Self-Extinguishing Cotton Fabrics by Small Molecules Containing Phosphorous and Nitrogen

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Introduction: New methods for preparing surface modification of flame retardant cotton fabrics were employed by applying a microwave-assisted technique with a minimum amount of co-solvent. Efforts at flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with economic and environmentally friendly flame retardant compounds based on the small molecules piperazine, PN and PNN, were done successfully.

Methods and Results: The evidence of flame retardant chemical penetrations or surface modification of cotton fabrics was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and the treated cotton fabrics were evaluated by flammability tests, such as 45°angle (clothing textiles test) and limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). Thermogravimetric analysis of all treated cotton fabrics in a nitrogen atmosphere showed high thermal stability, as decomposition occurred between 276.9~291.2°C with 30.5~35.7% residue weight char yield at 600°C. Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) and the 45° angle flammability test were used to determine the efficiency of the flame-retardant treatments on the fabrics. LOI values for control twill fabric showed ~18 vol% oxygen in nitrogen, whereas the highest treatment level had 32 vol%. High add-on treatments with flame retardants also readily passed the 45° angle flammability test.

Conclusion: In the Microscale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) tests, a decline in heat of combustion was shown through the smaller values acquired for THR, HRC and Tmax for all PN and PNN samples.
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Keywords: 45° angle flammability test; cotton fabric; flame retardant; limiting oxygen index; microwave; thermal degradation

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2019

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