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Metabolism of Oxalate in Humans: A Potential Role Kynurenine Aminotransferase/Glutamine Transaminase/Cysteine Conjugate Betalyase Plays in Hyperoxaluria

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Hyperoxaluria, excessive urinary oxalate excretion, is a significant health problem worldwide. Disrupted oxalate metabolism has been implicated in hyperoxaluria and accordingly, an enzymatic disturbance in oxalate biosynthesis can result in the primary hyperoxaluria. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-1 and glyoxylate reductase, the enzymes involving glyoxylate (precursor for oxalate) metabolism, have been related to primary hyperoxalurias. Some studies suggest that other enzymes such as glycolate oxidase and alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 might be associated with primary hyperoxaluria as well, but evidence of a definitive link is not strong between the clinical cases and gene mutations. There are still some idiopathic hyperoxalurias, which require a further study for the etiologies. Some aminotransferases, particularly kynurenine aminotransferases, can convert glyoxylate to glycine. Based on biochemical and structural characteristics, expression level, and subcellular localization of some aminotransferases, a number of them appear able to catalyze the transamination of glyoxylate to glycine more efficiently than alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase-1. The aim of this minireview is to explore other undermining causes of primary hyperoxaluria and stimulate research toward achieving a comprehensive understanding of underlying mechanisms leading to the disease. Herein, we reviewed all aminotransferases in the liver for their functions in glyoxylate metabolism. Particularly, kynurenine aminotransferase-I and III were carefully discussed regarding their biochemical and structural characteristics, cellular localization, and enzyme inhibition. Kynurenine aminotransferase-III is, so far, the most efficient putative mitochondrial enzyme to transaminate glyoxylate to glycine in mammalian livers, which might be an interesting enzyme to look for in hyperoxaluria etiology of primary hyperoxaluria and should be carefully investigated for its involvement in oxalate metabolism.
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Keywords: Hyperoxaluria; aminotransferase; glyoxylate; kidney stone; kynurenine aminotransferase; oxalate metabolism

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: August 1, 2019

This article was made available online on April 10, 2019 as a Fast Track article with title: "Metabolism of Oxalate in Humans: A Potential Role Kynurenine Aminotransferase/Glutamine Transaminase/Cysteine Conjugate Betalyase Plays in Hyperoxaluria".

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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